DNA & Genetic Inheritance

Genealogists and geneticists study DNA to learn more about human lineages.

In a human cell, there are four kinds of DNA: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), autosomal DNA (atDNA), Y chromosome DNA (Y-DNA), and X chromosome DNA (X-DNA).

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is present in the mitochondrion, a compartment within a cell, but outside the nucleus of that cell.
Since it it outside the nucleus, it does not experience genetic variation from generation to generation. It passes, unchanged, from mother to child.
In the case of a female child, studying the mtDNA passed down from mother to daughter enables geneticists to trace a daughter's maternal ancestry.

The other three kinds of DNA are found in the nucleus of a cell.

Within the nucleus are twenty-three pairs of chromosomes. In each pair, one chromosome comes from the mother and the other comes from the father.

Numbered in sequence, chromosomes one through twenty-two are the autosomes, the source of autosomal DNA (atDNA).

Chromosome twenty-three is called the sex chromosome because it determines the sex of the child.
The mother's contibution is always an X chromosome.
The father's contibution, if another X, produces a female child. However, if the father's contribution is a Y chromosome, the child will be male.

The study of the X chromosome (X-DNA) has not become a major part of DNA research. It is usually subsumed into the study of atDNA.

A study of the Y chromosome (Y-DNA), which is passed on, exclusively, from father to son, enables geneticists to trace a son's paternal ancestry.

A Maloney DNA Genealogical Study?

Conducting a Maloney DNA genealogical study could help to answer, among others, the following questions.

Are we all descended from the same originals (William and his ancestors; Johanna and her ancestors)?

Is there a connection to some Irish Moloneys (which would link the family back to its Irish origins)?

And is there a connection to some German Beckers for Johanna and Johann (which would link the family back to its German origins)?

The Maloney DNA Project

A number of us, all cousins, have had our DNA tested and then joined The Maloney DNA Project on FamilyTree DNA.

Here is the introductory statement on their Web site:

"The Maloney DNA Project is open to all who are interested in working together to find their common heritage through sharing of information and dna testing. All variant spellings are welcome. If your Surname is missing, we'll be glad to add it."

"You should join this project if:

  1. 1. you want to find out where your Maloney family came from
  2. 2. you want to see to which people called Maloney (or its many variants) you are most closely related
  3. 3. you want to break through some Brick Walls in your Maloney family tree
  4. 4. you want to find out where you sit on the Human Evolutionary Tree
  5. 5. you want to find out which Maloney variants are most closely related to each other
  6. 6. you want to find out if your Maloney name goes back to the Ancient Irish Genealogies
  7. 7. you want to contribute to the growing body of DNA research & the advancement of genetic genealogy"

Last Updated: 2022-06-10
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